For other formats, check the end of this article. Despite the varying terms, the difference between a bibliography, an annotated bibliography and a works cited page is simple. The MLA format generally calls for a works cited list, whereas a bibliography or annotated bibliography may be preferable in Chicago and Turabian styles. The basic information you should cite when referencing a book includes: the author surname first, followed by their given name or initials , the book title in italics , the city of publication, the publisher, and date of publication.
Note the punctuation in the bibliography example here:. Smith, John Jacob Jingleheimer. Wu Xia and the Art of Scooter Maintenance. New York: Springer, Wu Xia and the Art of Sc ooter Maintenance. If there are more than two authors for your source, note your citation as follows.
Et al. Smith, John Jacob Jingleheimer et. Occasionally, you will come across a source without a listed author. This is especially common when citing newspaper articles and articles from the Internet.
When this happens, you should simply move to the next step of your citation. For newspapers and magazines, you should include the author, the article title in quotation marks , the title of the newspaper or publication in italics , the date of publication, and the page numbers from which the information was gathered.
When you are citing an online source, do your best to include the following: the author, the title of the article or page, the name of the website, the website publisher if available , the date of publication, and the specific web address or URL. Johnson, Mary Anne. If you are citing a personal interview - that is, one you conducted yourself - the citation structure is simple.
Include the name of the interviewee, last name first, then "Personal interview," and the date the interview was conducted. The result should look like this:.
If you are citing an interview performed by someone else, your citation should begin with the interviewee's name, last name first, just like the personal interview. What follows depends on the format of the interview. If it appears in a printed publication like a book or magazine, the title of the publication in italics comes next, followed by any volume or issue numbers in plain text, followed by the year, followed by the page numbers in which the interview appears. Like so:.
Subject, Anne. Interview with Anne Author. Amazing Interviews Magazine , vol. If the interview has a title of its own, independent of the work it's published in, be sure to include it in quotations in place of "Interview with Anne Author. If the interview is one part of a television program or other broadcast medium, follow the same pattern above, but omit reference to volume, issue and page number.
Instead, include the interviewer's name as "By [name]" after the show's title, along with year of broadcast. Many research papers may call on you to cite a film or television program. The rules for citation are fairly straightforward. In the case of a film, the format starts with the film title in italics, followed by "Directed by [name of director or directors]," then the film studio and release year.
You can include noteworthy performances just after the directors if you choose.
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Book Choose a book type. Book with One Author Chicago Manual Tylor, Researches , Dasco et al. Book with Organization as Author Chicago Manual Governmental and Organizational Reports Chicago Manual OR World Health Organization. KewalRamani et al. No Author Chicago Manual American Heritage Dictionary , 6.
Roosevelt, foreword, vii. Book Chapter Chicago Manual Benedict, "Archival Ethics," Collection of Essays Chicago Manual Montaigne, The Complete Essays. Montaigne, "On the Cannibals," Poetry Chicago Manual OR Frost, Robert. Frost, "The Road Not Taken," Play Chicago Manual Shepard, Sam. True West. New York: Nelson Doubleday, Norton, , Shepard, True West , Lear Greenblatt , 3. Edition other than First Chicago Manual Translated Work Chicago Manual Churchill, History , Cook, Blanche Weisen.
Eleanor Roosevelt. New York: Viking, Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt. Encyclopedia Entry Chicago Manual Electronic Encyclopedia Entry: Name of Encyclopedia. Ebook Choose an ebook type.
Ebook Chapter Chicago Manual Khan, "A Civil Religion," Ebook Entire Book Chicago Manual Journal Article Choose a journal type. Or: Kenseth, Joy. Friedman, "Simulacrobama," Online Journal Article Chicago Manual Or: Salama, Ashraf M. Humphrey, "Structural Analysis," Print Journal Article Chicago Manual Review Chicago Manual Sorby, Songs of Ourselves , Magazine Article Choose a magazine type. Or: Brown, Rob.
Vick, "Cuba on the Cusp," Malcolm, "Depth of Field. Print Magazine Article Chicago Manual Fineman, "Political," Newspaper Article Choose a newspaper type.
Harmon, "DNA Gatherers," 1. Harmon, "DNA Gatherers. Print Newspaper Article Chicago Manual Vogel, "Art," E1. Letter to the Editor Chicago Manual Ashram, Jane. Boston Globe , November 9, Ashram, letter to the editor, A Website, Blog, or Social Media Choose a source type. Website Chicago Manual Watson, "Tunisians Vote.
Website, No Author Chicago Manual Blog Posting Chicago Manual Lennon, "How Do You Revise?. Social Media Chicago Manual O'Brien, "Earth Day. E-mail, List-serv or Personal Communication Choose a source type.
E-mail Chicago Manual Note: Email is usually cited only within the text of the paper or a note. Barbara Smith, e-mail message to author, December 6, Smith, e-mail message.
Abungu, "Valuing ethnographic objects. Personal Communication Chicago Manual Sarah Jones, telephone conversation, June 22, Jones, telephone conversation. Online Video Chicago Manual Edison, Sleighing Scene. Podcasts Chicago Manual Note: If the source has no date, use the date of last access.