This chapter contains an overview of theory related to listening comprehension in EFL environment. First, the importance of listening comprehension is discussed. There are main reasons common to the emergence of all ESP : 1. This stage operates on the basic principle that the English, of, say, Electrical Enginering constituted a register different from other registers such Biology or of General English.
One of the first inhabitants of the current UK are the Celts. Grygiel indicates that the operation of the process of metonymy is based on broadly understood contiguity of two entities, states or actions.
English is a West Germanic language which was first spoken in early medieval England. United States ; General. The national language for The United States of America is English, though some also speak Spanish and multiple other languages that vary per region. Australian English The official language in Australia is obviously English, but in some aboriginal-towns people still speak original aboriginal-languages instead of English.
Australian English is called Strine. When two languages interact it is referred to as a language contact. Two or more languages are used either by one individual or in speech communities. Essay UK offers students a complete range of free resources for undergraduate, post graduate, PhD and professional courses.
Old English was a very flexible language capable of using old words and giving them new uses.
Latin has been the second great influence on English. It was the language of an educated and sophisticated civilization from which the Saxon peoples wanted to learn.
The contact between these people was at first commercial and military but then it also became religious and intellectual. Before going to England the Germans had already had contact with the Romans and of course, from this contact they acquired some Latin words. When Christian was introduced in England, the people living there adopted many Latin elements. English borrowings from Latin came in three waves that extended the resourced of their vocabulary.
During the continental borrowing, the words were introduced because of the contact the German tribes had had with the Romans on the continent. Some of the words introduced were already present in the early Germanic dialects because of the trading contact. The Germans coming back from the empire brought with them words apart from goods. The words they adopted indicated new conceptions related with things they did not know or for which they did not have terms. Owing to the commercial relationship most words are related to trade.
They also traded domestic and household articles plus clothing as in cytel kettle L.
In the art of buildings and construction there were words like copor copper , pic pitch or tigele tile. The words the Germans borrowed reflected the kind of relationships they had. In the Celtic transmission, which had a poor influence on old English made the Latin influence be limited too during the roman occupation.
Free Essay: Old English ( AD) Old English was the language the invading Germanic Tribes spoke in Britain. Old English did not. English, a West Germanic language has developed for many centuries England. It started in south eastern Scotland at the height of the Anglo-Saxon era.
The extent to which the country had been Romanised and the use of latin by the population were not influential. Some terms could be found in placenames but a direct contact between latin and old English was not possible during this period because the Latin words came thought the transmission of the celts and their interaction with old English was weak. Words like ceaster L. Camp which today forms English place names as Manchester or Doncaster or words like port harbour, gate, town from Latin portus and porta; munt mountain from latin montem were introduced.
The influence of the language in the first period was the slightest of all. The Latin influence of the second period and the greatest of all was the Christianizing of Britain that started in From this moment until the end of the old engliush period around years later words made their way into English thanks in most cases to monasteries. It is needless to say that most of the terms introduced had to do with the new religion. Some words like church or bishop already belonged to the language because they had been introduced before but the vast majority of terms having to do with churches and their services were introduced in this period.
Some examples are abbot, deacon, disciple, angel, althar, anthem, pal, pope, psalm.
But the church did not only influence religiously speaking. Some terms related to the domestic life of people, clothes, food, trees, plants, education, miscellaneous things or literature were introduced. Words like cap or silk, lentil or caul cabbage , pine or lily, the word plant itself, school, master, grammatic al , meter, notary, anchor, sponge or elephant or calend or talent.
There was a great influence in the early years of Christianity in England. As the Latin influence always came and went hand in hand with the church new words when with the Benedictine reform. The imports were different now and they expressed scientific and learned ideas.
But some words were still related to religious matters antichrist, apostle or demon.
Indian English. Only pronouns and strong adjectives retain separate instrumental forms. Geopolitical use. Old English was shaped by Latin, Norse and Celtic. Its roots are in the Ingvaeonic people who were Germanics of the West.
The words that predominated in this period were the literary and learned ones. Some examples are accent, history, paper, title.