Chandra Shekhar assumed power and formed Government with Congress support from outside. But it was a matter of four months that Congress-I also withdrew its support and the President announced fresh polls. Congress came back and stayed in power from to In , the Congress was voted out of power and the United front which mustered support of 14 parties formed a unique Coalition Government with Congress-I, that once again decided to support from outside.
Again the coalition failed and election for 13th Lok Sabha were held and the Coalition Government under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee took the reign of the country. The present 15th Lok Sabha is also a coalition government.
Many a time, coalition partners resort to political blackmail to further their personal, political interests, taking advantage of the fragility of the coalition government, AIADMK leader Mrs. Vajpayee took the coalition government to ransom and finally led to eventful fall of the BJP coalition. Often the instabilities prevail, when the coalition governments are formed on the basis of negative reasons e. Many of these alliances were post poll pacts without any ideological compatibility and once power was gained, the intra as well as inter-party differences over the key issues made the functioning of the government very difficult.
The first UPA formed soon after the general elections after it had became clear that no party had won majority. The UPA did not enjoy a simple majority on its own in the Parliament, rather it has relied on the external support to ensure that it enjoys the confidence of the Indian Parliament similar to the formula adopted by the previous minority governments of the United Front, the NDA, the Congress government of Narasimha Rao and earlier governments of VP Singh and Chandrasekhar.
An informal alliance had existed prior to the elections as several of the current constituent parties had developed seat-sharing agreements in many states. However, it was only after the election that the results of negotiations between parties were announced.
Hence, government policies were generally perceived as centre-left, reflecting the centrist policies of the INC. The Congress party is today more closely aligned with the neoliberalism, strongly advocates social democracy and social liberalism.
UPA survived a vote of confidence in the Parliament on 22nd July, after left parties withdrew their support. UPA survived a vote of confidence mainly because of the Samajwadi Party supported them.
Because a party has no real chance of forming a government alone, the manifestos they present to the public become irrelevant and often wildly unrealistic. Real decisions about political programmes are made after the election, in a process of secretive back-room negotiation from which the public is excluded. This undermines accountability, as voters cannot expect individual parties in a coalition to deliver upon their particular manifesto promises, unlike the single-party governments in the USA and UK.
Accountability is also absent when a coalition government falls, either after an election or through the defection of some of its supporters.
Any new administration will tend to include most of the parties and politicians from the previous government, with just a little shuffling of coalition partners and ministerial jobs. Coalitions provide good government because their decisions are made in the interests of a majority of the people.
Because a wide consensus of opinion is involved, any policy will be debated thoroughly within the government before it is implemented. Single-party government is much more likely to impose badly thought-out policies upon parliament and people, perhaps for narrowly ideological reasons for example, the poll tax in the UK. When difficult or historic decisions have to be taken, for example in wartime, or over an issue such as membership of the European Union or NATO, the consent of politicians representing a wide range of interests and opinion is important in committing the country and its people to difficult but necessary courses of action.
Coalitions provide bad government because they are unable to take a long-term view.
Sometimes an ideological compass is necessary for governments to navigate in difficult political and economic waters, and coalitions lack such a unifying philosophy. In addition planning for the long-term often requires decisions to be made that are unpopular in the short-term. Coalitions often fail such tests because temporary unpopularity may encourage one of the parties involved to defect, in search of a populist advantage.
It might be agreed that sometimes exceptional circumstances, such as war, require a coalition government although the USA did not have one in either World War. This does not mean that such governments are better in normal conditions. Major constitutional decisions are better dealt with through referenda. In the Janata Party-a unified power of opposition parties replaced the long ruling party i. For the first time in the politics of coalition took a new form in Indian political system. Coalition means an alliance of different political parties which come together at a single platform to run a government with a common agenda.
The first coalition government headed by V. Singh was a great failure. Again the congress came to rule. The period of coalition saw nothing like happy consensuses emerge. Instead we had the Mandal Commission and the Rath Yatra.
Far from becoming united India tore itself apart. Even so liberal commentators continued to sing the praises of coalition politics. But nothing of this sort could be seen.